Localized displacement of disc material beyond the normal margins of the intervertebral disc space resulting in pain weakness and numbness in a myotomal or dermatomal distribution.

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Cervical disc herniation is a common disorder of the spine that can lead to neck and/or arm pain. The herniated disc can compress a nerve exiting the spine (branch of the spinal cord), the spinal cord itself or both.

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A herniated disc in the upper back can occur when the inner gelatinous material of an intervertebral disc leaks out of the inside of the disc. A thoracic herniated disc can cause upper back pain and other symptoms, such as radiating pain or numbness.

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Spondylolisthesis is the forward slipping of one vertebra on its adjacent caudal segment that a spinal condition that causes lower back pain..

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Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots. Symptoms may include pain, numbness, or weakness in the arms or legs. 

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